由ABB工业机器人的 Quick Move 说开去 – 如何优化机器人节拍

Faster,Faster,Faster,在自动化生产工厂,速度就是金钱,cycletime 就是衡量机器人自动化生产的重要指标。ABB在他们自己的工业机器人宣传资料介绍中提到自己的特性 Quick Move,他们是怎么说的呢?

Faster, Faster, Faster, in the automatic factory, speed is the money, the cycletime of robot cell is the highly  important specific. ABB introduce their robotics that they have the characteristic of QuickMove, what is it?

 

这个片子当然是比较早的宣传片了,ABB宣称,Quick Move能提升20%的循环时间,那么他是怎么做到的呢?据 LT 看到的一个介绍PPT解释说通过提升加速度来实现的?一般来说,机器人从一个位置移动到另一个位置,过程中的运动通常包含三个阶段:加速,保持,减速。但是如果能在加减速阶段尽可能快,也就是加速度尽可能大,那么就可以缩短行程的时间。如下图:

This is an old demo, abb said QuickMove can improve 20 percent of cycletime. But how it does? LT remember one article said that abb robot works by increasing acceleration of the motion. Generally, robot moves from one position to the next one, the course have three phases: increasing speed, keeping speed, decreasing speed. if the acceleration is big enough , the time of path will be short.
quickmove

如何达成这种效果呢,在机器人本体的运动学处理中,要考虑动力学因素,控制算法在得知各个部分的质量相关数据后,就会给电机最优化的驱动。(这个功能在有的机器人控制器中默认是没有打开的,换而言之默认就是上面图示的第一种情况。如果需要优化,需要单独设置打开。)

How robot control knows to accelerate it faster? When move a robot, the kinematics is not only the things we consider, but also the  dynamics. Robot control can drive the manipulator better if it know the parameters about mass ,etc.   (some robot need enable this function, because they disable it default. so the motion characteristic is like the first figure )

各个部分的质量,除了本体的质量相关数据,还包括2轴、3轴附加质量相关数据以及工具和工件的质量相关数据。本体的数据,在机器人出厂时已经配置完成,而附加负载就需要在机器人投入使用时正确的配置。这个数据可以由CAD数据输入,或者由机器人的负载测试程序测得(ABB、FANUC、KUKA都配备有相应的LoadID测试程序)。

The masses, are not only the robot itself, but also include the addition load of axes2 and axes3 and the tool and the workpiece. the parameters  of robot manipulator itself have done well when we get, but we need to set the addition load and the tool load and the workpiece load separately.  you can directly input these parameters according the CAD data, also you can through the test program of robot control. (ABB, FANUC, KUKA, etc. have the Load Ident program.)

优化了动力学因素后,机器人节拍就可以得到提高。如果要继续优化节拍,就需要在控制逻辑上下功夫了。

After doing the optimization of dynamics, the cycletime improves. we can optimizing the flow control of program to continue getting shorter cycletime.

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